The Twelve Caesars.


Domitian, A.D. 81 – 96  Julius Caesar (d. 44 B.C.)
Gold aureus struck at a military mint, c.43 B.C. It bears the portraits of Octavian (later known as Augustus) and his adoptive father, the slain dictator Julius Caesar.


Augustus, 27 B.C. – A.D. 14    Augustus (27 B.C.–A.D. 14)
Gold aureus struck at Lugdunum, c.15–12 B.C. A fictionally youthful portrait of Augustus is paired with the abutting bull.


Tiberius, A.D. 14 – 37  Tiberius (A.D. 14–37)
Gold aureus struck at Lugdunum early in his reign. It depicts the portrait of Tiberius and the seated figure of his mother, Livia, who had been the wife of Augustus.


CCaligula, A.D. 37 – 41  Caligula (A.D. 37–41)
Gold aureus struck at Rome, A.D. 37–38. Caligula's portrait appears with that of his deceased mother, Agrippina Senior, a political martyr of the reign of Tiberius.


Claudius, A.D. 41 – 54  Claudius (A.D. 41–54)
Gold aureus struck at Rome, A.D. 46–47. A fine portrait of Claudius is paired with the seated figure of Constantia, who personifies courage and perseverance.


Nero, A.D. 54 – 68  Nero (A.D. 54–68)
Gold aureus struck at Rome, A.D. 62–63. A youthful portrait of Nero appears opposite the standing figure of Virtus, who personifies valour and bravery.


Galba, A.D. 68 – 69  Galba (A.D. 68–69)
Gold aureus struck at Rome, A.D. 68–69. A realistic portrait of Galba is shown with a reverse symbolic of an award for having saved the lives of fellow Romans.


Otho, A.D. 69  Otho (A.D. 69)
Gold aureus struck at Rome, A.D. 69. Otho, fitted with his famous wig, is shown opposite the standing figure of Pax (Peace) — a type well suited for a time of civil war.


Vitellius, A.D. 69  Vitellius (A.D. 69)
Gold aureus struck at Rome, A.D. 69. The well-sculpted portrait of Vitellius is paired with a symbolic type that had been employed months earlier by Galba.


Vespasian, A.D. 69 – 79  Vespasian (A.D. 69–79)
Gold aureus struck at Rome, A.D. 76. Vespasian's robust portrait appears opposite a heifer, perhaps representing a work of the Greek sculptor Myron.



Titus, A.D. 79 – 81  Titus (A.D. 79–81)

Gold aureus struck at Rome, A.D. 75. This coin was struck while Titus was Caesar under his father; the reverse shows Victory on Sista Mystica flanked by snakes.


Domitian, A.D. 81 – 96  Domitian (A.D. 81–96)

Gold aureus struck at Rome, A.D. 76. This aureus was struck when Domitian was Caesar under Vespasian; the reverse depicts a cornucopia, a symbol of bounty.


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